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ZingPath: Molecular Genetics

DNA to Protein Synthesis

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Molecular Genetics

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Lesson Focus

DNA to Protein Synthesis

Biology

Learning Made Easy

You will be introduced to the process of the central dogma. You will have the opportunity to interact with a DNA strand to better understand how nucleotides are paired to create proteins from a DNA strand.

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Now You Know

After completing this tutorial, you will be able to complete the following:

  • State the role and importance of proteins.
  • Explore the process of central dogma.
  • Analyze the output of transcription and translation processes.
  • Describe the protein synthesis process.
  • Pair the bases in nucleic acids.

Everything You'll Have Covered

The central dogma is a process that is made up of two complex steps to form a protein. These steps are transcription and translation. The process of transcription starts in the cell's nucleus of eukaryotes and in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes. This is where a DNA strand is unwound by the enzyme helicase. These complementary strands are bound to a ribosome. A single-stranded mRNA is formed and the strand is transferred to the cell's cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, mRNA is met by tRNA.

At this point, the process of translation begins. Translation occurs as tRNA matches the mRNA codons on the strands with anticodons. The tRNA acts as a translator and sequences the mRNA strand with corresponding amino acids. The sequence of nucleotides to form a protein begins at a start codon and ends at a stop codon. Once these amino acids are placed, they are bonded together. These chains of amino acids are called proteins.

Tutorial Details

Approximate Time 20 Minutes
Pre-requisite Concepts Students should be familiar with listing and describing organelle structures, defining and describing the DNA molecule structure, and describing the Watson and Crick Model.
Course Biology
Type of Tutorial Concept Development
Key Vocabulary amino acids, bacteria, central dogma